A Collaboration with the University of Michigan and the Institute for the Advancement of Breastfeeding and Lactation Education

Authors: Anna Sadovnikova, IBCLC, MPH, MA, Samantha Chuisano, MPH, Kaoer Ma, MS, Katrina Mitchell, MD, Kate Stanley, MD, Anne Eglash, MD, IBCLC, Katherine Pasque, MD, IBCLC, Jeffrey Plott, PhD, Olivia Anderson, PhD, RD, MPH

Manuscript has been submitted to the International Journal of Breastfeeding Medicine

Comprehensive Validation of the LiquidGoldConcept Lactation Simulation Models by Breastfeeding Medicine Experts (2018)

Traditional breast simulators are not realistic and cannot provide comprehensive lactation training. LiquidGoldConcept (LGC) developed the Lactation Simulation Models (LSMs) to teach health students and providers how to manage common breastfeeding issues. Until this study, the LSMs have not been systematically validated by breastfeeding medicine experts.

Past LSM Validation Study (2017) at the University of Michigan:

  • 17 OBGYN/Family Medicine residents.
  • Breastfeeding medicine ‘novices’ based on low self-efficacy score and inability to correctly identify features and pathologies on LSMs.
  • The data from the ‘novices’ are compared with the data from ‘experts.’


  • Evaluate the clinical relevance and realism of the look, feel, and features of the LGC LSMs.
  • To compare face, context, and construct validity between novices and experts.
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A Multi-Phase Validation of the LiquidGoldConcept Lactation Simulation Model with University of Michigan Pediatric, Obstetric, and Family Medicine Residents: Results from Phase One (2017)

Background: As part of the University of Michigan obstetric, pediatric, and family medicine house officer lactation education project, the investigators assessed the LiquidGoldConcept Lactation Simulation Model (LSM) May 2017 prototype. This trial is the first time any LSM is validated for its use in comprehensive breastfeeding management training of residents.


  1. Validate LiquidGoldConcept Lactation Simulation Model Questionnaire
  2. Assess look, feel, and realism of LiquidGoldConcept May 2017 LSM with first-year OB/GYN and Family Medicine Residents
  3. Use participant feedback to improve look, feel, and realism of LiquidGoldConcept LSM
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